Traumatic events are ubiquitous exposures that interact with life course events to increase risk of acute psychopathology and alter mental health trajectories. While the majority of persons exposed to trauma experience mild to moderate psychological distress followed by a return to pre-trauma health, many persons exposed to trauma experience substantial distress that lasts for several years.
This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". The complexities of parenting behavior in humans have been studied for decades. Only recently did we begin to probe the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying these complexities. Much of the research in this field continues to be informed by animal studies, where genetic manipulations and invasive tools allow to peek into and directly observe the brain during the expression of maternal behavior.
Despite evidence for heritable variation in cannabis involvement and the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, no consistent patterns have emerged from candidate endocannabinoid (eCB) genetic association studies of cannabis involvement. Given interactions between eCB and stress systems and associations between childhood stress and cannabis involvement, it may be important to consider childhood adversity in the context of eCB-related genetic variation.
This study attempts to identify some of the signs of ineffective religious involvement in coping. Drawing from a process/integration model of efficacious coping, three broad types of religious warning signs were defined and 11 subscales were developed. These subscales were administered to a group of Roman Catholic church members and two groups of college undergraduates who had experienced different types of negative life events in the past two years.
Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
OBJECTIVE: To describe spiritually augmented cognitive behaviour therapy (SACBT) and its applications. METHODS: The background for the need to incorporate spirituality into therapy is considered, and SACBT as a therapy for sustaining mental health and functional recovery is described. Cognitive and behavioural components are considered, including the use of existential techniques in discovering meaning. The use of meditation and the validation and incorporation of the appropriate belief system of patients into their treatment are described.
The specific risk factors for addiction within religious community members remain poorly understood and undefined. This paper presents data on the characteristics of chemically dependent women Religious (nuns) in order to understand the etiology and treatment needs of this special group. This study contrasts a group of Roman Catholic women Religious who are in treatment for chemical dependency with a volunteer, nonalcoholic, comparison group from similar religious communities.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiously based beliefs about suffering and health among older Mexicans. METHODS: A nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans was conducted (N=1,005). Questions were administered to assess beliefs about finding positive outcomes in suffering, the benefits of suffering in silence, other dimensions of religion, and health. RESULTS: The findings suggest that older Mexican Americans who use their faith to find something positive in the face of suffering tend to rate their health more favorably.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course and impact of family optimism in the post-acute stage of acquired brain injury. METHODS: At Time 1, 30 family relatives of in-patients in rehabilitation units and 30 relatives of patients recently discharged from such units completed questionnaires relating to their emotional health, engagement in the rehabilitation process and expectations about the future consequences and controllability of the injury.
Overestimating the occurrence of threatening events has been highlighted as a central cognitive factor in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the different facets of this cognitive bias, its underlying mechanisms, and its specificity to OCD. For this purpose, threat estimation, probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and psychopathological measures were assessed in 23 participants with OCD, 30 participants with social phobia, and 31 healthy controls.
In a retrospective study of 865 delusional syndromes, connections were investigated between delusional themes and the sex of patients, and the ages in which these themes extensively occurred. According to previous reports, the results of this investigation indicated that differences exist between the ages of manifestation regarding the themes of hypochondria, persecution, love and jealously. Furthermore, differences could be observed between males and females in relation to the frequency of choice of particular themes, as well as the age of occurrence.