Utilizing data from the nationwide Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), this paper analyzes health lifestyles in Russia. Heavy alcohol use and smoking, a high-fat diet, and lack of leisure-time exercise are the principal culprits in fostering high rates of heart disease and other causes of premature mortality. This is especially the situation for middle-age, working-class males whose mortality is greater than any other segment of society.
BACKGROUND: Relative risk estimates suggest that effective implementation of behaviors commonly advocated in preventive medicine should increase life expectancy, although there is little direct evidence. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that choices regarding diet, exercise, and smoking influence life expectancy. METHODS: A total of 34 192 California Seventh-Day Adventists (75% of those eligible) were enrolled in a cohort and followed up from 1976 to 1988. A mailed questionnaire provided dietary and other exposure information at study baseline.
Okinawans, who have a different ethnicity and food cultural history to other Japanese nationals, and an exceptional longevity have been studied at home and as migrant groups in Hawaii and Brazil. Biomarkers for fish and soy intake and intervention studies indicate that these foods, along with seaweed and green vegetables are candidates for chronic non-communicable disease prevention.
This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century.
A healthy cardiovascular system, with minimal arteriosclerosis, good endothelial function and well-compensated ventricular function has been observed at advanced ages, and linked to a healthy lifestyle. This has consisted of a plant-based diet, low in salt and fat, with monounsaturates as the principal fat. Other healthy lifestyle factors include regular physical activity (farming and traditional dance) and minimal tobacco use.
Aging is considered a product of an interaction between genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Are centenarians, who have almost arrived at the maximum life-span (120 yrs), free of cardiovascular disease or do they have an increased resistance? How many cardiovascular risk factors are present? We have studied a group of 148 centenarians selected from registered residents of Rome (average age 101.8 +/- 1.9; range 100-108).
BACKGROUND: Although increasing emphasis is being placed on strategies for successful aging, few studies have examined the relationship between lifestyle factors and mortality and other health outcomes in the old-old population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of physical activity, dietary habits, smoking, and alcohol consumption on 3-year mortality and other health outcomes. METHODS: 2,032 Chinese subjects aged 70 years and older (mean age 80 years) were recruited territorywide by proportional random sampling and followed for 3 years.