Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final occurrence of natural sterility. Endocrine changes mainly relate to the decline in the negative feedback from ovarian factors at the hypothalamo-pituitary unit.
Preferences for mates that possess genes dissimilar to one's own at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a polymorphic group of loci associated with the immune system, have been found in mice, birds, fish, and humans. These preferences may help individuals choose genetically compatible mates and may adaptively function to prevent inbreeding or to increase heterozygosity and thereby immunocompetence of offspring. MHC-dissimilar mate preferences may influence the psychology of sexual attraction.
Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Men's altruism may have evolved, via female choice, as a signal of either their genetic quality or their willingness to allocate resources to offspring. The possibility that men display altruism to signal their genetic quality may be tested by examining women's preference for men's altruism across the stages of the menstrual cycle.
Asclepio; Archivo Iberoamericano De Historia De La Medicina Y Antropología Médica
This essay explores different views on the female body articulated within Hebrew medieval texts on women's health care. It also investigates whether texts also integrate women's own perceptions of their bodies, and of their needs and care. I have analysed how this genre of Hebrew literature understood two key issues in the construction of sexed bodies: menstruation and cosmetics.
INTRODUCTION: Human estrus is a new topic to discussion. Articles related to this are few. AIM: Authors present here the first known report on human estrus, which was discussed in the Ayurveda classic text, Susruta Samhita, dated back to the 1st century BC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Supporting this, evidence from modern literature is presented here. RESULTS: Estrus discussed as a fresh topic. CONCLUSION: Authors concluded that all modern research results, though limited, are in support of the oldest writing about human estrus.
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that sex and gender-related differences exist in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but data is often conflicting. AIM: To evaluate gender differences and the effect of menstrual cycle and menopausal status on IBS symptoms. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE to search for studies comparing IBS symptoms between gender, menstrual cycle phases and menopausal states in IBS and/or healthy individuals. We performed meta-analyses to compare the relative risk (RR) of individual IBS symptoms between men and women.
BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
OBJECTIVE: Antimycotics effectively treat sporadic and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). Classic homeopathy (CH) is also used to treat this condition. We compared the efficacy of CH and itraconazole in reducing the frequency of RVVC episodes. DESIGN: Single-centre, prospective, randomised trial. SAMPLE: One hundred-and-fifty patients with a history of RVVC and an acute episode of VVC. METHODS: Women were randomised into 3 groups: itraconazole with lactobacilli (group 1), itraconazole without lactobacilli (group 2) and CH (group 3).
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder of some women during their reproductive years, characterized by a range of cyclical physical and/or mood symptoms experienced during the last few days of each menstrual cycle. Several treatment approaches have been applied, but have shown limited success, as the exact cause and pathophysiology of PMS is still not fully identified. In this paper, the etiology and pathogenesis of PMS is compared from both a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) perspective and the Western biomedicine paradigm.
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
The most common metabolic bone disorder is osteoporosis, which affects 25 million Americans, of whom 80% are women. Bone loss in women occurs most commonly after menopause, when the rate of loss may be as high as 2% per year. Bone mass can be determined with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The rate of active loss can be assayed by the detection of bone collagen breakdown products (e.g., N-telopeptide, pyridinoline) in the urine. Although it has been suggested that white women are most commonly affected, Hispanic and Asian women are also affected.