Praxis Der Kinderpsychologie Und Kinderpsychiatrie
The model of ego development by Loevinger describes an epigenetic series of successive stages comprising increasingly complex styles of impulse control, interpersonal relationships, moral and cognitive reasoning. This model offers an opportunity to explore the structural premises young adults rely on solving their developmental tasks. Controls compared to patients show a significantly superior intrapsychic coping, awareness of social rules and knowledge of interpersonal relations.
Psychoanalytic theorists concerned with substance abuse suggest that the affect tolerance and affect expression of addicts are impaired due to preverbal influences. However, psychoanalytic contributions have largely been limited to clinical speculations and case study reports. The present study investigated the hypotheses that opiate abusers will demonstrate more impaired affect tolerance and affect expression than cocaine abusers, and that both groups would appear more impaired than a sample of normals.
The molecular-genetic basis of non-mendelian, genetically influenced disorders (complex disorders) is beginning to be uncovered. Recently, major progress in localization and detection of disposition genes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder was achieved. We provide a comprehensive overview of recent results of linkage and association studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Several disposition genes for schizophrenia (DTNBP1, NRG1, G72) were identified, whereas evidence for specific disposition genes in bipolar disorder is more limited.
This work is dedicated to the exploration of the role of epigenetic (epiG) factors in major psychosis. One of the key functions of epigenetic modification of the genome of eukaryotic cells is to suppress transcriptional activity of the retroelements. Examples of retroelements are endogenous retroviral sequences (ERVs), Alu's, and LINEs, among others, which as a rule are hypermethylated. There is evidence from schizophrenia (SCH) and other human complex diseases that some of the genomic retroelements become transcribed in the affected tissues.
Along with genetic vulnerability, multiple environmental factors convey liability to illness progression, including: (1) distal and proximal stressors; (2) recurrence of episodes; and (3) comorbid cocaine abuse. Recurrence of each of these can increase responsivity (sensitize) to themselves and cross-sensitize to the two other factors and drive illness progression as seen clinically in increases in cycle acceleration, severity or duration of episodes, treatment refractoriness, disability, cognitive dysfunction, and premature death.
Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient.
Suicidal behaviour in youth is a major public health concern worldwide, and youth in the early stages of a primary mood disorder are an identifiable high-risk population. Neurobiological research in youth at risk for suicidality has sought to investigate the most promising parameters from research in adults. The present paper provides an overview of the current findings of neurobiological research in children and adolescents with mood disorders and suicidality including genetic/epigenetic findings, neuro-hormonal and immunological investigations.
Developing novel therapeutics and diagnostic tools based upon an understanding of neuroplasticity is critical in order to improve the treatment and ultimately the prevention of a broad range of nervous system disorders. In the case of mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD), where diagnoses are based solely on nosology rather than pathophysiology, there exists a clear unmet medical need to advance our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and to develop fundamentally new mechanism experimental medicines with improved efficacy.
Affective disorders are a medical condition with a complex biological pattern of etiology, involving genetic and epigenetic factors, along with different environmental stressors. Increasing numbers of studies indicate that induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways, which is accompanied by immune-inflammatory response, might play an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying many major psychiatric disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder.
During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the life cycle. For these reasons the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress.