Motor Activity

Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in modulating neural and behavioral plasticity to drugs of abuse. We found a persistent downregulation of exon-specific Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to chronic opiate exposure, which was mediated by specific epigenetic modifications at the corresponding Bdnf gene promoters.

Author(s): 
Koo, Ja Wook
Mazei-Robison, Michelle S.
LaPlant, Quincey
Egervari, Gabor
Braunscheidel, Kevin M.
Adank, Danielle N.
Ferguson, Deveroux
Feng, Jian
Sun, HaoSheng
Scobie, Kimberly N.
Damez-Werno, Diane M.
Ribeiro, Efrain
PeÒa, Catherine Jensen
Walker, Deena
Bagot, Rosemary C.
Cahill, Michael E.
Anderson, Sarah Ann R.
LabontÈ, Benoit
Hodes, Georgia E.
Browne, Heidi
Chadwick, Benjamin
Robison, Alfred J.
Vialou, Vincent F.
Dias, Caroline
Lorsch, Zachary
Mouzon, Ezekiell
Lobo, Mary Kay
Dietz, David M.
Russo, Scott J.
Neve, Rachael L.
Hurd, Yasmin L.
Nestler, Eric J.
Publication Title: 
Stroke

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Stroke Health and Risk Education Project was a cluster-randomized, faith-based, culturally sensitive, theory-based multicomponent behavioral intervention trial to reduce key stroke risk factor behaviors in Hispanics/Latinos and European Americans. METHODS: Ten Catholic churches were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention group received a 1-year multicomponent intervention (with poor adherence) that included self-help materials, tailored newsletters, and motivational interviewing counseling calls.

Author(s): 
Brown, Devin L.
Conley, Kathleen M.
S·nchez, Brisa N.
Resnicow, Kenneth
Cowdery, Joan E.
Sais, Emma
Murphy, Jillian
Skolarus, Lesli E.
Lisabeth, Lynda D.
Morgenstern, Lewis B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Physical Activity & Health

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women.

Author(s): 
Pavey, Toby G.
Burton, Nicola W.
Brown, Wendy J.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: Optimism is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, but its impact on recovery after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is poorly understood. We hypothesized that greater optimism would lead to more effective physical and emotional adaptation after ACS and would buffer the impact of persistent depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes. METHODS: This prospective observational clinical study took place in an urban general hospital and involved 369 patients admitted with a documented ACS. Optimism was assessed with a standardized questionnaire.

Author(s): 
Ronaldson, Amy
Molloy, Gerard J.
Wikman, Anna
Poole, Lydia
Kaski, Juan-Carlos
Steptoe, Andrew
Publication Title: 
Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

BACKGROUND: Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, no study has separately examined the effects of multiple positive psychological constructs on behavioral, biological, and clinical outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Accordingly, we aimed to investigate associations of baseline optimism and gratitude with subsequent physical activity, prognostic biomarkers, and cardiac rehospitalizations in post-ACS patients.

Author(s): 
Huffman, Jeff C.
Beale, Eleanor E.
Celano, Christopher M.
Beach, Scott R.
Belcher, Arianna M.
Moore, Shannon V.
Suarez, Laura
Motiwala, Shweta R.
Gandhi, Parul U.
Gaggin, Hanna K.
Januzzi, James L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

Exercise self-efficacy is a powerful predictor of physical activity behavior, which enhances health and well-being for older adults. Social relations have been proposed as influential precursors for exercise self-efficacy. In a longitudinal study of 160 older adults with osteoarthritis (76.9% women), the authors found that social support (but not social strain) significantly predicted exercise self-efficacy in a structural equation model examining cross-sectional data: chi(2) (178, N = 160) = 264.57, p < .01; RMSEA = .06; CFI = .92; TLI = .90.

Author(s): 
Cotter, Kelly A.
Sherman, Aurora M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability".

Author(s): 
Takeuchi, Yukari
Mori, Yuji
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice

OBJECTIVE: Experiencing romantic love is important in individual development. Little is known about romantic love among adolescents in non-Western countries. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore romantic love among Iranian female adolescents. METHODS: Eighty-six females (mean age: 17.97 years) took part in the study; 38 of them (44%) indicated they were experiencing romantic love at the time of survey, and 48 (56%) indicated they were not in love.

Author(s): 
Bajoghli, Hafez
Joshaghani, Narges
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza
Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
Brand, Serge
Publication Title: 
Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

BACKGROUND: Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, no study has separately examined the effects of multiple positive psychological constructs on behavioral, biological, and clinical outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Accordingly, we aimed to investigate associations of baseline optimism and gratitude with subsequent physical activity, prognostic biomarkers, and cardiac rehospitalizations in post-ACS patients.

Author(s): 
Huffman, Jeff C.
Beale, Eleanor E.
Celano, Christopher M.
Beach, Scott R.
Belcher, Arianna M.
Moore, Shannon V.
Suarez, Laura
Motiwala, Shweta R.
Gandhi, Parul U.
Gaggin, Hanna K.
Januzzi, James L.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Brain Research

Converging evidence from both human and animal studies has highlighted the pervasive role of two neuropeptides, oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), in mammalian social behaviours. Recent molecular genetic studies of the human arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin (OXTR) receptors have strengthened the evidence regarding the role of these two neuropeptides in a range of normal and pathological behaviours.

Author(s): 
Israel, Salomon
Lerer, Elad
Shalev, Idan
Uzefovsky, Florina
Reibold, Mathias
Bachner-Melman, Rachel
Granot, Roni
Bornstein, Gary
Knafo, Ariel
Yirmiya, Nurit
Ebstein, Richard P.

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