Mucus

Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Genetics

The digestive tract plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Far from being a passive tube, it provides the first line of defense against pathogens and maintains energy homeostasis by exchanging neuronal and endocrine signals with other organs. Historically neglected, the gut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently come to the forefront of Drosophila research.

Author(s): 
Lemaitre, Bruno
Miguel-Aliaga, Irene
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) developed airway inflammation.

Author(s): 
Cheng, Chang
Ho, W. Eugene
Goh, Fera Y.
Guan, Shou Ping
Kong, Li Ren
Lai, Wen-Qi
Leung, Bernard P.
Wong, W. S. Fred
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms. (Menispermaceae), locally called 'Padathaali/Padakizhangu' is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat peptic ulcer. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Cyclea peltata. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanolic extract of Cyclea peltata root was used to evaluate its gastric antisecretory and antiulcer effect in the pylorus-ligated rat model and gastric lesions induced by ethanol or ethanol and indomethacin respectively in rats.

Author(s): 
Shine, V. J.
Latha, P. G.
Shyamal, S.
Suja, S. R.
Anuja, G. I.
Sini, S.
Pradeep, S.
Rajasekharan, S.
Publication Title: 
Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology

BACKGROUND: The effect of ageing on several pathologic features of allergic asthma (pulmonary inflammation, eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion), and their relationship with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung inflammation, mucus metaplasia and AHR in relationship with age in murine models of allergic asthma comparing young and older mice. METHODS: Young (6 weeks) and older (6, 12, 18 months) BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).

Author(s): 
Busse, Paula J.
Zhang, Teng Fei
Srivastava, Kamal
Schofield, Brian
Li, Xiu-Min
Publication Title: 
Pediatric Research

The objective of this study was to develop a symptom scoring system for use in clinical studies that differentiates children with cold symptoms who have an identifiable viral etiology for their upper respiratory tract infection (URI) from those in whom no virus is detected. Nasal swabs for PCR testing for identification of respiratory viruses were obtained on children aged 2-11 y at baseline and when parents thought their child was developing a cold. Parental-recorded severity of specific symptoms in children with and without a documented viral URI were compared.

Author(s): 
Taylor, James A.
Weber, Wendy J.
Martin, Emily T.
McCarty, Rachelle L.
Englund, Janet A.
Publication Title: 
Inhalation Toxicology

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of sputum leukocytes by flow cytometry (FCM) is an opportunity to assess characteristics of cells residing in the central airways, yet it is hampered by certain inherent properties of sputum including mucus and large amounts of contaminating cells and debris. OBJECTIVE: To develop a gating strategy based on specific antibody panels in combination with light scatter properties for flow cytometric evaluation of sputum cells. METHODS: Healthy and mild asthmatic volunteers underwent sputum induction.

Author(s): 
Lay, John C.
Peden, David B.
Alexis, Neil E.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Pathology

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important bacterial pathogen associated with lower respiratory tract colonization and with acute exacerbations and disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Why the immune system fails to eliminate NTHi and the exact contribution of the organism to COPD progression are not well understood, in part because we lack an animal model that mimics all aspects of COPD. For this study, we used an established murine model that exhibits typical features of COPD.

Author(s): 
Ganesan, Shyamala
Faris, Andrea N.
Comstock, Adam T.
Sonstein, Joanne
Curtis, Jeffrey L.
Sajjan, Uma S.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parenthood predicts host resistance to the common cold among healthy volunteers experimentally exposed to a common cold virus. METHODS: Participants were 795 healthy volunteers (age range = 18-55 years) enrolled in one of three viral-challenge studies conducted from 1993 to 2004.

Author(s): 
Sneed, Rodlescia S.
Cohen, Sheldon
Turner, Ronald B.
Doyle, William J.
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Tanreqing injection, a traditional Chinese herbal preparation for clearing heat and resolving phlegm, in treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) by improving airway inflammation and airway mucus hypersecretion. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was designed. Ninety AECOPD patients were randomly divided into Tanreqing group, ambroxol hydrochloride group and control group. The patients in the three groups were all treated with conventional therapy.

Author(s): 
Li, Weng
Mao, Bing
Wang, Gang
Wang, Lei
Chang, Jing
Zhang, Ying
Wan, Mei-Hua
Guo, Jia
Publication Title: 
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

In traditional Chinese medicine, arsenous compounds, including arsenic trioxide (ATO), are often used to treat many diseases, which are safe and effective. Recently, studies have indicated that Th17- IL-17 involved in the pathogenesis and development of asthma. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of ATO on asthma, especially the Th17- IL-17 axis.We used oval bumin (OVA)-immunized mice as a model for asthma and treated mice with ATO or dexamethasone.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Li
Li, Keng
Bing Ma, Li
Gong, Su-bo
Wang, Gu-yi
Liu, Yi
Ji, Xiao-ying
Xu, Li
Liu, Shao-kun
Chen, Ping
Ouyang, Ruo-yun
Xiang, Xu-dong
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