Muscular Atrophy

Publication Title: 
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The potential impact of dietary manipulation on the maintenance of physical and cognitive function between middle and old age has profound consequences for optimization of health, independence and well-being for the latter years. This review article considers four key areas: the role of diet and longevity; potential dietary measures to prevent sarcopenia; diet and cognitive function; and dietary interventions with regard to primary or secondary prevention of age-related chronic disorders.

Author(s): 
Charlton, Karen E.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

The aging process is evolutionarily conserved and subject to quantitative modification by both genetic and environmental factors. Fundamental mechanisms of aging result in progressive deficits in the function of cells and organs, often leading to diseases that ultimately kill the organism such as cancers, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress and damage to all of the major classes of molecules in cells are involved in aging and age-related diseases.

Author(s): 
Cutler, Roy G.
Mattson, Mark P.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Author(s): 
Kahn, Arnold J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging

Aging is generally accompanied by weight loss made up of both fat mass and fat-free mass. As more people, including elderly, are overweight or obese, weight loss is recommended to improve health. Health risks are decreased in overweight children and adults by dieting and exercise, but the health benefits of weight loss in elderly, particularly by calorie restriction, are uncertain. Rapid unintentional weight loss in elderly is usually indicative of underlying disease and accelerates the muscle loss which normally occurs with aging.

Author(s): 
Miller, S. L.
Wolfe, R. R.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Despite the fact that growth hormone (GH) has not been approved for antiaging purposes, its use for this indication is widespread and increasing. The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened an international workshop to critically review and debate the available evidence related to the use of GH in the older adults and the relationship between the GH/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and the aging process.

Author(s): 
Thorner, Michael O.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weight loss and low BMI due to an underlying illness have been associated with increased mortality, reduced functional capacity, and diminished quality of life. There is a need for well tolerated, long-term approaches to maintain body weight in patients with cachexia or wasting. The purpose of this review is to highlight the scientific and clinical evidence derived from the recent literature investigating the rationale for and potential medical use of creatine supplementation in patients with cachexia or wasting.

Author(s): 
Sakkas, Giorgos K.
Schambelan, Morris
Mulligan, Kathleen
Publication Title: 
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The potential impact of dietary manipulation on the maintenance of physical and cognitive function between middle and old age has profound consequences for optimization of health, independence and well-being for the latter years. This review article considers four key areas: the role of diet and longevity; potential dietary measures to prevent sarcopenia; diet and cognitive function; and dietary interventions with regard to primary or secondary prevention of age-related chronic disorders.

Author(s): 
Charlton, Karen E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Animal Science

Gene expression profiles of LM from beef cattle that underwent significant postweaning undernutrition were studied using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. After 114 d of undernutrition, the RNA from LM showed 2- to 6-fold less expression of many genes from the classes of muscle structural proteins, muscle metabolic enzymes, and extracellular matrix compared with animals on a rapid growth diet. The expression levels of these genes had mostly returned to pretreatment levels after 84 d of realimentation.

Author(s): 
Lehnert, S. A.
Byrne, K. A.
Reverter, A.
Nattrass, G. S.
Greenwood, P. L.
Wang, Y. H.
Hudson, N. J.
Harper, G. S.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Muscle atrophy is a highly prevalent condition among older adults, and results from reduced muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area. Resistive exercise training and moderate (30-40%) caloric restriction may reduce the rate of sarcopenia in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that lifelong, voluntary exercise combined with mild (8%) caloric restriction would attenuate the reduction of muscle fiber cross-sectional area in the rat plantaris.

Author(s): 
Kim, Jong-Hee
Kwak, Hyo-Bum
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Lawler, John M.
Publication Title: 
Aging

Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contributing to the progression of sarcopenia.

Author(s): 
Burks, Tyesha N.
Cohn, Ronald D.

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