Vasculature is essential for the sustained growth of solid tumors and metastases. Tumor cells surviving vascular-disruptive therapeutic intervention (especially those present at the tumor rim) can contribute to tumor regrowth. The aim was to strengthen, by carrier-mediated delivery of a chemotherapeutic, the curative effects of a bifunctional anti-vascular oligopeptide capable of inducing vascular shutdown and tumor shrinkage. For the in vitro experiments and animal therapy, ACDCRGDCFC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)(2) peptide (900 microM in D-PBSA, i.e.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12 to 15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50% to 1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity.
The major goal of evolutionary oncology is to explain how malignant traits evolve to become cancer ``hallmarks." One such hallmark---the angiogenic switch---is difficult to explain for the same reason altruism is difficult to explain. An angiogenic clone is vulnerable to ``cheater" lineages that shunt energy from angiogenesis to proliferation, allowing the cheater to outcompete cooperative phenotypes in the environment built by the cooperators.
Improvement of quality of life and survival of cancer patients will be greatly enhanced by the development of highly effective drugs to selectively kill malignant cells. Artemisinin and its analogs are naturally occurring antimalarials which have shown potent anticancer activity. In primary cancer cultures and cell lines, their antitumor actions were by inhibiting cancer proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In xenograft models, exposure to artemisinins substantially reduces tumor volume and progression.
AIM: To investigate the embryotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the main active metabolite of artemisinin, in zebrafish, and explore the corresponding mechanisms. METHODS: The embryos of wild type and TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were exposed to DHA. Developmental phenotypes of the embryos were observed. Development of blood vessels was directly observed in living embryos of TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish under fluorescence microscope.
BACKGROUND: In addition to recognized antimalarial effects, Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao) possesses anticancer properties. The underlying mechanisms of this activity are unknown. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the effects of distinct types of compounds isolated from A. annua on the immune-activated production of major mediators of angiogenesis playing a crucial role in growth of tumors and formation of metastasis. METHODS: Included in the study were the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and its biogenetic precursors arteannuin B and artemisinic acid.
BACKGROUND: A proportion of glioblastoma stemlike cells (GSCs) expressing endothelial cell marker CDH5 (vascular-endothelial-cadherin or CD144) can transdifferentiate into endothelial cells and form blood vessels. However, the implications of CDH5 expression in gliomas and how it is regulated in GSCs remain to be clarified. METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of CDH5 were detected in glioma samples and cultured cell lines, and the prognostic value of the CDH5 expression level for GBM patients was evaluated.
Pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol), a component of traditional Ayurvedic medicine (talisapatra), has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities through undefined mechanisms. Because the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been linked with inflammatory diseases, including insulin resistance, we hypothesized that pinitol must mediate its effects through modulation of NF-kappaB activation pathway. We found that pinitol suppressed NF-kappaB activation induced by inflammatory stimuli and carcinogens. This suppression was not specific to cell type.
The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of a small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we showed that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor growth in the human prostate tumor xenograft mice treated daily (10 mg/kg AKBA) after solid tumors reached approximately 100 mm(3) (n = 5).
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
Numerous cancer therapeutics were originally identified from natural products used in traditional medicine. One such agent is acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), derived from the gum resin of the Boswellia serrata known as Salai guggal or Indian frankincense. Traditionally, it has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat proinflammatory conditions. In this report, we hypothesized that AKBA can affect the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) in orthotopically implanted tumors in nude mice.