Nerve Tissue Proteins

Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

The aging program mediated by IGF1-R is responsible for a naturally occurring TrkA to p75(NTR) switch that leads to activation of the second messenger ceramide and increased production of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta-peptide. Biochemical and genetic approaches that target IGF1-R signaling, p75(NTR), or ceramide are able to block the above events. Here, we show that the transcription factors Egr-1 and Hipk2 are required elements for the TrkA to p75(NTR) switch downstream of IGF1-R signaling.

Author(s): 
Li, Hui
Costantini, Claudio
Scrable, Heidi
Weindruch, Richard
Puglielli, Luigi
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Physiology

Caloric restriction attenuates the onset of a number of pathologies related to ageing. In mammals, circadian rhythms, controlled by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic (SCN) clock, are altered with ageing. Although light is the main synchronizer for the clock, a daily hypocaloric feeding (HF) may also modulate the SCN activity in nocturnal rodents. Here we report that a HF also affects behavioural, physiological and molecular circadian rhythms of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei. Under constant darkness HF, but not normocaloric feeding (NF), entrains circadian behaviour.

Author(s): 
Mendoza, Jorge
Gourmelen, Sylviane
Dumont, Stephanie
Sage-Ciocca, Dominique
Pévet, Paul
Challet, Etienne
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

PYY is a gut-derived putative satiety signal released in response to nutrient ingestion and is implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Pyy-expressing neurons have been identified in the hindbrain of river lamprey, rodents, and primates. Despite this high evolutionary conservation, little is known about central PYY neurons. Using in situ hybridization, PYY-Cre;ROSA-EYFP mice, and immunohistochemistry, we identified PYY cell bodies in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus region of the hindbrain. PYY projections were present in the dorsal vagal complex and hypoglossal nucleus.

Author(s): 
Gelegen, C.
Chandarana, K.
Choudhury, A. I.
Al-Qassab, H.
Evans, I. M.
Irvine, E. E.
Hyde, C. B.
Claret, M.
Andreelli, F.
Sloan, S. E.
Leiter, A. B.
Withers, D. J.
Batterham, R. L.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Neuronatin (NNAT) is an endoplasmic reticulum proteolipid implicated in intracellular signalling. Nnat is highly-expressed in the hypothalamus, where it is acutely regulated by nutrients and leptin. Nnat pre-mRNA is differentially spliced to create Nnat-α and -β isoforms. Genetic variation of NNAT is associated with severe obesity. Currently, little is known about the long-term regulation of Nnat.

Author(s): 
Scott, William R.
Gelegen, Cigdem
Chandarana, Keval
Karra, Efthimia
Yousseif, Ahmed
Amouyal, Chloé
Choudhury, Agharul I.
Andreelli, Fabrizio
Withers, Dominic J.
Batterham, Rachel L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Caloric restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen known to promote lifespan by slowing down the occurrence of age-dependent diseases. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration in the brain is age, from which follows that CR might also attenuate the progressive loss of neurons that is often associated with impaired cognitive capacities. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse model that allows for a temporally and spatially controlled onset of neurodegeneration to test the potentially beneficial effects of CR.

Author(s): 
Gräff, Johannes
Kahn, Martin
Samiei, Alireza
Gao, Jun
Ota, Kristie T.
Rei, Damien
Tsai, Li-Huei
Publication Title: 
Endocrinology

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide implicated in both metabolic and reproductive regulation, raising the possibility that CART plays a role in reproductive inhibition during negative metabolic conditions. The current study characterized CART's regulatory influence on GnRH and kisspeptin (Kiss1) cells and determined the sensitivity of different CART populations to negative energy balance.

Author(s): 
True, Cadence
Verma, Saurabh
Grove, Kevin L.
Smith, M. Susan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Recent experimental evidence demonstrating neuronal/synaptic plasticity and, in particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in spinal neurons is reviewed. The implications of these studies for possible mechanistic explanations of low back pain and its remediation by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) are explored. Brief descriptions of LTP and LTD and elaboration of the key roles of calcium, glutamate, and glutamate receptors in LTP/LTD are provided as separate appendices.

Author(s): 
Boal, Robert W.
Gillette, Richard G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Recent experimental evidence demonstrating neuronal/synaptic plasticity and, in particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in spinal neurons is reviewed. The implications of these studies for possible mechanistic explanations of low back pain and its remediation by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) are explored. Brief descriptions of LTP and LTD and elaboration of the key roles of calcium, glutamate, and glutamate receptors in LTP/LTD are provided as separate appendices.

Author(s): 
Boal, Robert W.
Gillette, Richard G.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

The bis-indole indirubin is an active ingredient of Danggui Longhui Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine recipe used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as leukemias. The antitumoral properties of indirubin appear to correlate with their antimitotic effects. Indirubins were recently described as potent (IC(50): 50-100 nm) inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). We report here that indirubins are also powerful inhibitors (IC(50): 5-50 nm) of an evolutionarily related kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3 beta).

Author(s): 
Leclerc, S.
Garnier, M.
Hoessel, R.
Marko, D.
Bibb, J. A.
Snyder, G. L.
Greengard, P.
Biernat, J.
Wu, Y. Z.
Mandelkow, E. M.
Eisenbrand, G.
Meijer, L.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Development

The adult fish brain undergoes continuous neurogenesis and retains the capacity to regenerate. However, the cellular and molecular basis of this process is not well understood. We report on the cloning and characterization of a Brain-1-related, class III POU domain gene, tai-ji, in the developing and adult zebrafish, as well as in a human cell line, hNT2. During development, as differentiation occurs, the expression of tai-ji is downregulated in the notochord, muscle, nervous system and dorsal fin.

Author(s): 
Huang, S.
Sato, S.

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