The neuronal GABAergic mechanisms that mediate the symptomatic beneficial effects elicited by a combination of antipsychotics with valproate (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) in the treatment of psychosis (expressed by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder patients) are unknown. This prompted us to investigate whether the beneficial action of this combination results from a modification of histone tail covalent esterification or is secondary to specific chromatin remodeling.
Alcohol use and abuse appear to be related to neuroadaptive changes at functional, neurochemical, and structural levels. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to modulate function of the activity-dependent gene transcription factor, cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein in the brain, which may be associated with the development of alcoholism.
Recent advances in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder research suggest that a dysfunction of GABAergic neurotransmission that is operative in telencephalic structures may be an important dynamic mechanism associated with psychosis. We propose that this dysfunction is probably mediated by the hypermethylation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), reelin and other gene promoters expressed in GABAergic neurons.
Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi = Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology
Recent research has demonstrated that complex 'epigenetic' mechanisms, which regulate gene transcription without altering the DNA code, could play a critical role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. The present review summarizes recent evidence for the existence of sustained epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in several psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and Rett syndrome.
INTRODUCTION: HTR2A gene has been the subject of numerous studies in psychiatric genetics because LSD, which resembles serotonin causes psychosis and atypical antipsychotic drugs target the HTR2A receptor. However, evidence for the role of HTR2A polymorphism(s) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has been elusive. We hypothesized that epigenetic dysregulation of HTR2A may be involved in psycho-pathogenesis and analyzed promoter DNA methylome and expression of HTR2A in SCZ, BD and control subjects.
OBJECTIVE: The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) molecules represent a class of proteins that modulate the signaling activity of G-protein coupled receptors. Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) is of particular interest in schizophrenia due to reported downregulation of RGS4 transcripts in schizophrenia as well as a connection between RGS4 and a number of receptors implicated in schizophrenia. The mechanism of RGS4 involvement in the pathophysiology of this illness is not clear.
We posit that maternal prenatal nutrition can influence offspring schizophrenia risk via epigenetic effects. In this article, we consider evidence that prenatal nutrition is linked to epigenetic outcomes in offspring and schizophrenia in offspring, and that schizophrenia is associated with epigenetic changes. We focus upon one-carbon metabolism as a mediator of the pathway between perturbed prenatal nutrition and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia.
SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, and plays important roles in the formation, maturation, and maintenance of synapses. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene causes a developmental disorder, 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome), that is characterized by severe expressive language and speech delay, hypotonia, global developmental delay, and autistic behavior.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
This article reviews the familiality, linkage, candidate gene, and genomewide association studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders (ie, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia). Studies involving children and adolescents are highlighted. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Studies of schizophrenia inheritance in identical twins show a concordance of about 50%, which supports an epigenetic model. In our present study we investigated methylation of genomic DNA and promoter methylation of Reelin and SOX10 genes in peripheral blood of twins suffering from schizophrenia. Global DNA methylation was reduced (52.3%) in schizophrenic twins if compared with healthy control twins (65.7%). The reduced methylation was significant in males only. We also found a similar hypomethylation in the non-affected twins of discordant pairs and a mixed group of psychiatric controls.