Neurotransmitter Agents

Publication Title: 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), a group of bacterial proteins that comprise a light chain disulfide linked a heavy chain, are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind. By inhibiting neurotransmitter release, BoNTs cause severe neuroparalytic disease, botulism. A series of important findings in the past 10 years which displayed the molecular targets of BoNTs and hence proposed a four-step action mechanism to explain BoNT intoxication greatly advanced the study of antibotulismic drug. In this article, we reviewed these progresses and anti-botulismic compounds found in recent years.

Author(s): 
Shi, Yu-Liang
Wang, Zhong-Feng
Publication Title: 
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

PURPOSE: High brain levels of aluminum (Al) can be neurotoxic and cause learning and memory deficits. Gastrodia elata (GE) is a Chinese herb widely used for improving mental function in traditional Chinese medicine. We measured changes in Al-induced neurotransmitter alteration and performance on a learning and memory task to elucidate the mechanism of Al toxicity and to assess whether these alterations could be attenuated by GE. METHODS: Thirty-six adult, male rats were randomly divided into six groups.

Author(s): 
Shuchang, He
Qiao, Niu
Piye, Niu
Mingwei, He
Xiaoshu, Sun
Feng, Shao
Sheng, Wang
Opler, Mark
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Xiaoyao Powder, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of depression, on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression (PPD). METHODS: Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, untreated group, fluoxetine hydrochloride group and Xiaoyao Powder group. Except for the control group, the rats in the other 3 groups were injected subcutaneously with estrogen for 23 successive days to induce the "pregnancy" state.

Author(s): 
Wang, Tao
Qin, Feng
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

Some researchers focus on research of the nature of syndromes. The methods of combining traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and diseases and the correspondence between formulas and syndromes may be used in research of the nature of syndromes. According to combined theories of zang-organ state and seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine with stress theory in modern medicine, the authors applied the methods of chronic immobilization stress to induce liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome in rats based on the thinking of relativity on formula and syndrome.

Author(s): 
Li, Xiao-Hong
Li, Jing-Jing
Liu, Yue-Yun
Chen, Jia-Xu
Publication Title: 
Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society

Anatomy knowledge, and the skill to apply it, is arguably the most important facet of safe and competent acupuncture practice. The authors believe that an acupuncturist should always know where the tip of their needle lies with respect to the relevant anatomy so that vital structures can be avoided and so that the intended target for stimulation can be reached. This article reviews clinically relevant anatomy for somatic needling of the chest and abdomen.

Author(s): 
Peuker, Elmar
Cummings, Mike
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

This study investigated the efficacy of magnetic stimulation on the reflex cardiovascular responses induced by gastric distension in anesthetized rats and compared these responses to those influenced by electroacupuncture (EA). Unilateral magnetic stimulation (30% intensity, 2 Hz) at the Jianshi-Neiguan acupoints (pericardial meridian, P 5-6) overlying the median nerve on the forelimb for 24 min significantly decreased the reflex pressor response by 32%. This effect was noticeable by 20 min of magnetic stimulation and continued for 24 min.

Author(s): 
Zhou Yi Syuu, Wei
Hsiao, Ian
Lin, Vernon W. H.
Longhurst, John C.
Publication Title: 
Yonsei Medical Journal

PURPOSE: We investigated what kinds of neurotransmitters are related with electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in an arthritic pain model of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred rats were assigned to six groups: control, EA, opioid, adrenergic, serotonin and dopamine group. A standardized model of inflammatory arthritis was produced by injecting 2% carrageenan into the knee joint cavity. EA was applied to an acupoint for 30 min in all groups except fo the control group.

Author(s): 
Yoo, Young-Chul
Oh, Jin Hwan
Kwon, Tae Dong
Lee, Yeong Kyu
Bai, Sun Joon
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used to alleviate diverse pains. Accumulated clinical experiences and experimental observations indicated that significant differences exist in sensitivity to EA analgesia for individuals of patients and model animals. However, the molecular mechanism accounting for this difference remains obscure.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ke
Zhang, Rong
Xiang, Xiaohui
He, Fei
Lin, Libo
Ping, Xingjie
Yu, Lei
Han, Jisheng
Zhao, Guoping
Zhang, Qinghua
Cui, Cailian

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