BACKGROUND: The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. METHODS: We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n?=?34), remitted depression (n?=?25), acute depression (n?=?21), and healthy controls (n?=?64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.
The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent optimism. Optimism (3 items and 6 items approach) and pessimism were assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) in 5,187 adolescent twins and 999 of their non-twin siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Males reported significantly higher optimism scores than females, while females score higher on pessimism.
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Research on the topic of hope began a long time ago but, more recently, interest in this construct has focused mainly on the development of psychometric tools for its assessment. The 2 steps of the present article are defining the construct of hope by completing a preliminary review of the literature and analyzing the tools used to assess hope in the setting of oncologic medicine, conducting a systematic review of the existing scientific literature. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Our study was conducted in 2 stages.
This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal.
This paper examined the association between membership in profiles based on a shortened form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-S; McKay, Andretta, McGee, & Worrell, 2014) and other temporal and psychosocial variables. Participants consisted of 1620 adolescents attending high school in Northern Ireland. ZTPI-S scores had correlations with other temporal and psychosocial variables that were similar to those reported for ZTPI scores in previous studies.
Comparative optimism can be defined as a self-serving, asymmetric judgment of the future. It is often thought to be beneficial and socially accepted, whereas comparative pessimism is correlated with depression and socially rejected. Our goal was to examine the social acceptance of comparative optimism and the social rejection of comparative pessimism in two dimensions of social judgment, social desirability and social utility, considering the attributions of dysphoria and risk-taking potential (studies 2 and 3) on outlooks on the future.
BACKGROUND: Diabetes continuously disrupts a patient's well-being and quality of life. Successful self-care could potentially decrease overall costs and rates of mortality and morbidity. Patients' experiences could be used to elucidate what they believe about illness and its management. The overall aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of self-care among diabetic patients in Southeast of Iran. METHODS: Sixteen diabetic patients with a mean age of 34 and 10 years' experience in self-care for their disease were interviewed.
OBJECTIVES: The constructs optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are associated with outcomes of medical treatment. While these constructs are grounded in different theoretical models, they nonetheless show some conceptual overlap. The purpose of this study was to examine whether currently available measurement instruments for these constructs capture the conceptual differences between these constructs within a treatment setting.
BACKGROUND: We compared the effectiveness of religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (RCBT) versus standard CBT (SCBT) on increasing optimism in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic medical illness. METHODS: Participants aged 18-85 were randomized to either RCBT (n = 65) or SCBT (n = 67) to receive ten 50-min sessions remotely (94% by telephone) over 12 weeks. Optimism was assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks by the Life Orientation Test-Revised.
International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
Some personality traits have key importance for health because they can affect the maintenance and evolution of different disorders with a high prevalence in older people, including stress pathologies and diseases. In this study we investigated how two relevant personality traits, optimism and pessimism, affect the psychophysiological response of 72 healthy participants (55 to 76 years old) exposed to either a psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) or a control task; salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR) and situational appraisal were measured.