ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Azadirachta indica A. Juss, popularly known as neem, has been extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine by Indian population for over 2000 years. It is used traditionally for the healing of various diseases. Natural products and their derivatives provide an excellent source for new anti-viral drugs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aims at evaluating the activity of two polysaccharides (P1 and P2) isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica and their chemical sulfated derivatives (P1S and P2S) against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1).
We report the construction of a poliovirus genome [pPVM-VPg(3F4A)] harboring a double mutation in VPg. This mutant, in which the tyrosine and the threonine at residues 3 and 4 of the VPg region were replaced by phenylalanine and alanine, respectively, is lethal, that is, all RNA synthesis was abolished and no revertants could be isolated.
Amongst the picornaviruses, poliovirus encodes a single copy of the genome-linked protein, VPg wheras foot-and-mouth disease virus uniquely encodes three copies of VPg. We have previously shown that a genetically engineered poliovirus genome containing two tandemly arranged VPgs is quasi-infectious (qi) that, upon genome replication, inadvertently deleted one complete VPg sequence. Using two genetically marked viral genomes with two VPg sequences, we now provide evidence that this deletion occurs via homologous recombination.