BACKGROUND: The role of social-environmental factors in physical activity (PA) within lower income and ethnic minority populations is understudied. This study explored correlates of age-related PA and perceived walkability (PW). METHODS: Cross-sectional data (N = 401 women; ?18 y) were collected within the Jane-Finch community in Toronto, Ontario using questionnaires. Generalized additive models, an extension to multiple regression, were used to estimate effect sizes and standard errors.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequate dietary intake of antioxidants is vital for the promotion of health, well being and longevity of the elderly. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) deficiency in a population of low-income South African elderly. METHODS: Serum vitamin A and vitamin E concentrations were determined in 235 persons aged 60-93 years in Sharpeville, South Africa. Dietary assessment was done using 24-h recall. Weight and height were measured to determine body mass index.
Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant.
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity and financial strain are independent, and opposite, predictors of disease. This study examines whether physical activity modifies the concurrent and prospective relation between financial strain and impaired fasting glucose. METHODS: Participants were part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, a prospective study examining the development of disease. Participants were recruited in 1985 to 1986 and followed up for 20 years. The outcome measures were fasting glucose (FG) levels at Years 7 and 20.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: This research investigates personality variables--aggression and disorders of conduct, depression, and separation anxiety--mediating suicidal behavior in psychiatrically hospitalized urban minority adolescents. METHOD: Four matched groups of 26 subjects (N = 104) participated: suicidal adolescents with, and suicidal adolescents without, a conduct disorder diagnosis, nonsuicidal adolescents with a conduct disorder diagnosis, and a nonpsychiatric control group.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In a context of global concern about the consequences of stress and extreme adversities, advances in theory and methods for studying human resilience have ushered in a new era of integrative, biopsychosocial research. This review highlights recent theory, findings, and implications of resilience research on young people. RECENT FINDINGS: Resilience research has shifted toward dynamic system models with multiple levels of interaction, including research on the neurobiology of stress and adaption, epigenetic processes, and disasters.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
In the 1950's, many experts believed hyperkinesis was a neurotic reaction to inner conflicts arising from early family experiences. In the 1990's, many experts believed ADHD to be 'genetic' (without a mechanistic explanation of what that meant). Both views appear naÔve today in a scientific world grappling with the complexity of highly plastic gene expression, gene x environment interplay, and epigenetic, context-dependent emergence of psychopathology.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of recent research regarding neural mechanisms of socioeconomic disadvantage. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed provide convincing evidence of the detrimental effects of early adversities on brain structure and function. The effects of socioeconomic disadvantage and related environmental risks, such as childhood adversity and smoking during pregnancy, while affecting distributed networks of brain regions, have decreased prefrontal activity and volume as a common feature.
When nearly 70% of Boston area fishermen said they couldn't afford quality health care for their families, Caritas Christi Health Care System teamed with Massachusetts Fisherman's Partnership to offer low-cost health coverage.