BACKGROUND: Outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour is a significant part of problem behaviours presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence rates of up to 50% have been reported in the literature, depending on the population sampled. Such behaviours often run a long-term course and are a major cause of social exclusion. This is an update of a previously published systematic review (see Hassiotis 2004; Hassiotis 2008).
Emotion regulation has been examined extensively with regard to important outcomes, including psychological and physical health. However, the literature includes many different emotion regulation strategies but little examination of how they relate to one another, making it difficult to interpret and synthesize findings.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia.
INTRODUCTION: This literature review summarizes the current evidence on educational interventions to develop healthcare worker resilience. METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically searched using the search terms: education OR training OR medical students AND resilience. The initial search was refined using criteria including population (healthcare students and professionals), interventions (educational), and outcome (resilience changes). RESULTS: Resilience has been defined and measured in various ways.
This study attempts to identify some of the signs of ineffective religious involvement in coping. Drawing from a process/integration model of efficacious coping, three broad types of religious warning signs were defined and 11 subscales were developed. These subscales were administered to a group of Roman Catholic church members and two groups of college undergraduates who had experienced different types of negative life events in the past two years.
The role of friendship in the development and maintenance of lesbian love relationships was investigated by means of a structured interview with 23 lesbian women. Friendship was found to be a key factor in the development of the respondents' first same-sex love relationships; the first sexual/romantic relationship often grew out of an established friendship between the women.
Wet Cocker Spaniel Therapy is a metaphor for the therapist's use of spontaneous techniques arising from the specific therapeutic situation rather than planned techniques from the therapist's training or allegiances. The paper proposes a problem-oriented, rather than technique-oriented, approach to family therapy. Most therapy can be performed in a calm, polite, rational, straightforward manner without any tricks or therapeutic razzle-dazzle. From time to time, the therapist may have to startle or jerk the family past a snag point and into change.
Early theorists described physical diseases (e.g., asthma, ulcers) thought to be associated with the inhibition of weeping (e.g., Alexander 1950), and catharsis theories (Breuer and Freud 1895/1955; Koestler 1964) postulated that unexpressed emotion accumulated as in a tank, and then overflowed as tears when a threshold level was exceeded. From a more biological perspective, it has been suggested that stress produces toxic chemicals in the body that become concentrated in the lacrimal gland and are released through weeping, restoring homeostasis (Frey 1985).
The present studies were designed in order to obtain a better understanding of the nomological network of the alexithymia concept. In study I, the links between alexithymia, coping, and self-rated health were explored. As predicted, strong negative correlations were found between alexithymia and the expression of emotions, daydreams and fantasies, and planful and rational actions. Contrary to expectations, no clear associations were found with self-reported health status. In study II, the focus was on links with personality, temperament, and self-reported (susceptibility to) homesickness.
Social support refers to the presence of individuals providing emotional or material resources. Its four components are: integration, structure, function, and quality. This article presents empirical and theoretical data, as well as criticism of studies which examine the relationship between social support, global health and cardiovascular health, also evaluating direct or moderating contributions to the adoption and maintenance of health behaviours in persons with cardiovascular disease. Concrete implications for nursing practice are reviewed.