BACKGROUND: Outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour is a significant part of problem behaviours presented by people with intellectual disabilities. Prevalence rates of up to 50% have been reported in the literature, depending on the population sampled. Such behaviours often run a long-term course and are a major cause of social exclusion. This is an update of a previously published systematic review (see Hassiotis 2004; Hassiotis 2008).
AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Although the efficacy of small-group, risk reduction interventions based on cognitive behavioral principles has been widely documented in HIV behavioral research literature, little is known about how AIDS service organizations (ASOs) view these research-based models. From a nationwide sample of 77 ASOs, this study assessed factors influencing attitudes of prevention program directors and frontline staff toward research-based interventions.
Mindfulness meditation is increasingly well known for therapeutic efficacy in a variety of illnesses and conditions, but its mechanism of action is still under debate in scientific circles. In this paper, we propose a hypothetical causal model that argues for the role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal coping. Positive reappraisal is a critical component of meaning-based coping that enables individuals to adapt successfully to stressful life events.
Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to synthesize the findings of qualitative studies examining the experience of individuals with mental health difficulties attending mindfulness-based interventions. METHOD: A meta-synthesis of 15 qualitative studies was carried out, using a thematic synthesis approach.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a debilitating rheumatic disorder characterized mainly by the presence of continual and widespread musculoskeletal pain, in addition to other disturbing symptoms. There is inconsistent evidence about the effectiveness of the treatments developed so far, making FM a chronic disease that is difficult to treat. The aim of this literature review was to analyze the empirical studies about psychological treatment of FM that have been published over the last twenty years.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie
The inadequate nature of research into group psychotherapy stems from the lack of a satisfactory general theory that accounts for the group as a social system as well as for the functioning of the individual. A critique is presented of the group-as-whole tradition and a brief introduction given to social system concepts, particularly as they relate to group developmental stages. The idea that groups progress through a series of stages implies the notion of the group as a single entity with its own organizational structure.
In his early work, Bion (1961) established the goal of learning about and getting beyond the basic assumptions to become a work group. Later, in his structural theory of affect, passion became a key concept. Passion describes the necessary and sufficient condition for a psychotherapy group to be a work group. Passion is an intersubjective process of bearing and utilizing one's most basic affects to reach self-conscious emotional awareness. Bion postulated three primary affects: loving, hating, and knowing (LHK).
In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person"s wholeness.
An extended case description is used to illustrate and explore the notion that some children can identify with parental historical experiences as a defense against oedipal passions and mature involvement. Emphasis is placed on the nature and sequelae of a father-daughter relationship, as a function of the father's Holocaust experiences where he passed as a Christian and his post Holocaust experiences with a daughter born to him after the war.
This study investigated the effects of marathon group counseling on the attitudes of imprisoned male illicit drug users. Residents selected randomly into a control and an experimental group responded to a semantic differential which included the following concepts: Kindness, Anger, Guilt, Reality, My Real Self, The Future, Drug Treatment Programs, Counselors, Counseling, and Group Counseling. The scores of the control and marathon group participants were compared on posttests by t-tests.