In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptors in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified sevoflurane. A mouse model of hypnosis and analgesia was established by an intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection of emulsified sevoflurane.We intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) administered YM-31636, a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist, to mice and observed sleep time during hypnosis.
BACKGROUND: Carboetomidate is an etomidate derivative that produces hypnosis without inhibiting adrenal corticosteroid synthesis. Similar to etomidate, carboetomidate modulates ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, but its effects on other ion channel targets of general anesthetics are unknown. METHODS: We compared etomidate and carboetomidate effects on human N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors or neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nnAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using 2-microelectrode voltage clamp electrophysiology.
Tetra-acetamide pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD-A4) and bis-ethylcarbamyl pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD-BE) are new derivatives of pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD) and are being investigated as potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malaria. Comparative studies to assess the therapeutic indices of PQD-A4, PQD-BE, and PQD were conducted in Plasmodium berghei-infected rats following daily intragastric dosing for three consecutive days. Artesunate (AS), a standard drug for treatment of severe malaria, was used as a comparator.
BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a devastating parasitic disease that causes the death of 2 million individuals annually. The increase in multi-drug resistance together with the absence of an efficient vaccine hastens the need for speedy and comprehensive antimalarial drug discovery and development. Throughout history, traditional herbal remedies or natural products have been a reliable source of antimalarial agents, e.g. quinine and artemisinin. Today, one emerging source of small molecule drug leads is the world's oceans.
Despite appropriate anti-malarial treatment, cerebral malaria (CM)-associated mortalities remain as high as 30%. Thus, adjunctive therapies are urgently needed to prevent or reduce such mortalities. Overproduction of CXCL10 in a subset of CM patients has been shown to be tightly associated with fatal human CM. Mice with deleted CXCL10 gene are partially protected against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) mortality indicating the importance of CXCL10 in the pathogenesis of CM. However, the direct effect of increased CXCL10 production on brain cells is unknown.
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies indicate that baseline levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation, are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Limited studies have examined therapies that influence high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) levels, especially in hyperlipidemic patients.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Clinical trials with statins have demonstrated significant reductions in cardiovascular events. Remnant lipoproteins are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Because of the paucity of data on the effect of statins on remnant lipoproteins, we tested the effect of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin on remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) levels in a randomized crossover study in patients with combined hyperlipidemia.
Diabetes is a major risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress appears to be an important mechanism. Previously, we showed that diabetic monocytes produce increased superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and alpha-tocopherol (AT) supplementation decreases this. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) of O(2)(-) release and inhibition by AT under hyperglycemic (HG) conditions in monocytes.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Visceral hypersensitivity has been implicated as an important pathophysiological mechanism in functional gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we investigated whether the sustained visceral hyperalgesia induced by repeated psychological stress in rats involves the activation of CRF(1) signaling system using two different antagonists. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 10 consecutive days of water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress for 1 h/day, and the visceromotor response to phasic colorectal distension (CRD) was assessed before and after the stress period.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
We recently found that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a nutritional supplement thought to improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, enhances insulin action by lowering plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol. Recent in vivo studies suggest that cholesterol-lowering statin drugs benefit insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant patients, yet a mechanism is unknown. We report here that atorvastatin (ATV) diminished PM cholesterol by 22% (P<0.05) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As documented for CrPic, this small reduction in PM cholesterol enhanced insulin action.