The effects of chronic administration of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil on the anesthetic effects of a novel specific alpha 2-receptor agonist (dexmedetomidine) were studied in rats. It is presumed that this agonist acts on both pre- and postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors. To determine whether the central postsynaptic receptors are involved in the anesthetic interactions between these drugs, rats were treated with DSP-4 to deplete endogenous norepinephrine. Loss of the righting reflex was used to determine the presence of anesthesia and the duration of hypnosis.
Following in vivo treatment with carrageenan, sex-related differences in alteration of hepatic drug metabolism were found in the rat. In adult male rats, marked decreases were observed in hepatic 9000 x g supernatant cytochrome P-450 content and in the biotransformation of hexobarbital, aminopyrine, ethylmorphine, and meperidine. Hexobarbital hypnosis was significantly prolonged by carrageenan treatment in intact and testectomized animals as compared to their respective controls.
1-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1-aryl-3-phenyl-4-arylguanidines (I-X) were prepared by oxidation of 1,3-diarylthioureas. The compounds were screened for their analgesic and hypnotic activities in rats. Of these, p-methyl group substituted compound of the series was the most potent analgesic as compared to other compounds of the series. In hypnotic test all the compounds potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis.
The general pharmacological profile of 7-fluoro-1-methyl-3-(methylsulfonyl)- 4(1H)-quinolone BTS 53 554, CAS 76568-68-8), the main metabolite of a new vasodilator, flosequinan (BTS 49 465), was investigated. 1. The central nervous system: BTS 53 554 at the dose of 30 mg/kg i.v. caused an increase in respiratory rate and a sedation in general behavior in rats. The drug also inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing and slightly decreased normal body temperature in mice. However, the drug at the doses up to 30 mg/kg i.v.
Pharmacological effects of a new vasodilator, flosequinan (7-fluoro-1-methyl-3-(methylsulfinyl)-4(1H)-quinolone, BTS 49 465, CAS 76568-02-0) on the central nervous system, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system and smooth muscle, digestive system and miscellaneous organs were investigated. 1. The central nervous system: Flosequinan inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing at doses of more than 30 mg/kg p.o. and decreased body temperature and tended to decrease spontaneous movement slightly in mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o.
The hypnosis and hypothermia induced by phenobarbitone (100 mg/kg i.p.) were greatly potentiated by combined treatment with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alpha-MPT, 250 mg/kg i.p.). alpha-MPT per se produced sedation and hypothermia. Measurement of blood and brain levels of phenobarbitone in rats treated with phenobarbitone alone or phenobarbitone plus alpha-MPT revealed that the latter delayed the disappearance rates of phenobarbitone from both brain and plasma. These results suggest an interaction at the site of distribution, metabolism and/or excretion of phenobarbitone.
The effects of essential oil of Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae), orally administered were studied on behavioral parameters using rats and mice. The oil suspension did not modify pentobarbital induced-hypnosis, stereotypic behavior, catalepsy and amphetamine-induced hypermotility. The open-field behaviors were decreased and the minimal convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole was increased.
General pharmacological effects of T-3761, a new oral quinolone antibacterial agent, on the central nervous system were investigated in laboratory animals. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. T-3761 exerted no significant effects on spontaneous motor activity, motor coordination, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, electroshock-, pentetrazole- or strychnine-induced convulsion, acetic acid-induced writhing responses, reserpine-induced hypothermia and ptosis in mice at oral doses of 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg.
The general pharmacological properties of a novel cholecystokinin-A antagonist, loxiglumide ((+/-)-4-(3,4-dichlorobenzamido)-N-(3-methoxypropyl)-N-pentylgl utaramic acid, CR 1505, CAS 107097-80-3) on central nervous system, autonomic nervous system, cardio-respiratory system, gastrointestinal system, hematological and miscellaneous systems were investigated in experimental animals. 1. Central nervous system: At a dose of 30 mg/kg, i.v. loxiglumide showed ptosis in one of 6 mice, but at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.v. no change on gross behavior in mice.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
This study characterizes the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationships of the cardiovascular, EEG, hypnotic and ventilatory effects of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine in rats. Dexmedetomidine was administered by a single rapid infusion (n = 6) and by an infusion regimen of gradually increasing rate (n = 8). HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and EEG signals were recorded continuously, as was the time at which the rats woke up spontaneously from drug-induced sleep, a measure of hypnosis.