The effects of the ethanol extract of Pavetta crassipes on the central nervous system (CNS) and on actions of some selected centrally acting drugs were studied in mice and rats. These studies were carried out using the spontaneous motor activity (SMA), amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and stereotyped behaviour, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis and exploratory activity, apomorphine-induced climbing and haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. The results demonstrated that the extract of P.
Reserpine, an alkaloid from Rauwolfia serpentina, was widely used for its antihypertensive action. However, its use has been reduced because of its sedative and extra pyramidal symptoms. In the present investigation, reserpine methiodide (RMI), a quaternary analogue of reserpine, was synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated in rats and mice for its central (barbiturate hypnosis, spontaneous motor activity, body temperature, and avoidance of conditioned response) and peripheral actions (blood pressure) in comparison with reserpine.
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Société Canadienne Des Sciences Pharmaceutiques
PURPOSE: The present study evaluates some azetidin-2-ones derivatives for their central nervous system (CNS) modulating activities. The compounds were chosen from a series (5a-o) which were previously synthesized and evaluated for hypolipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity based on the predictions made by the computer software "Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS)".
Ketamine is a racemic mixture containing equal parts of (+)-ketamine and (-)-ketamine. The ketamine enantiomorphs are different in anesthesia and psychic emergence reactions after anesthesia. Therefore, (+)-ketamine was compared with racemic ketamine in a number of randomized studies in volunteers and patients. However, their relations remain controversial. In the present studies, the psychic emergence reactions after injection of (+/-)-ketamine and (+)-ketamine were compared in mice.
Isatin (1H-indol-2,3-dione) is an endogenous compound found in many tissues and fluids. Isatin and its derivatives exert pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, including anxiogenic, sedative and anticonvulsant activities. Two new groups of isatin derivatives were synthesized (nine dioxolane ketals and nine dioxane ketals) and studied for their sedative, hypnotic and anesthetic effects using pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity evaluation and intravenous infusion.
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Spinosin is the major effective single constituent in the traditional Chinese herb Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, which is used for sedation and hypnosis. For the further use of spinosin in treating insomnia, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of spinosin after intravenous administration to rats was investigated. An HPLC method with an ODS column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, i.d.) and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (23:77:1) was used for the determination of spinosin in the plasma and tissues of rats. Vanillin was used as an internal standard, and spinosin was detected at 334 nm.
Four pre-medication drugs are used to relieve pain, allay anxiety, reduce secretion and enhance hypnosis, were evaluated for their effects on ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury which is one of the major complications of vascular and transplantation surgery. Right kidney was removed from female rats (210-250 g) 3 weeks before surgical procedure.
BACKGROUND: In clinical anesthesia, robust surgical stress occasionally causes unintended light anesthesia during operation. To test the hypothesis that neural input condition could modify actions of general anesthetics as a result of presynaptic alteration in the central nervous system, we investigated the mechanisms by which the stimulus frequency modifies synaptic transmission of the rat hippocampus in the presence of general anesthetics.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible neurobehavioural effects in rats of the proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF) isolated from the bark of Croton celtidifolius (Euphorbiaceae). METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were treated with the PRF (0.3-30 mg/kg) and evaluated in different behavioural paradigms classically used for the screening of drugs with psychoactive effects.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
A safe and reliable method for anesthetizing rats has long been a leading concern of biomedical researchers. We recently found that the intraperitoneal administration of propofol combined with medetomidine and fentanyl is safe for mouse anesthesia. Here we studied whether the same combination could be used for general anesthesia in rats. We used male Wistar rats to test 10 combinations of propofol, medetomidine, and fentanyl administered intraperitoneally and reversed with intraperitoneal atipamezole 30 min after induction.