This review extends a prior meta-analysis of acupuncture's utility for treating opioid detoxification, addressing the efficacy of acupuncture when combined with allopathic therapies. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing acupuncture combined with opioid agonist treatment versus opioid agonists alone for treating symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad's scale (1-2 = low; 3-5 = high).
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use by teenagers often predates the use of harder drugs, but the neurobiological underpinnings of such vulnerability are unknown. Animal studies suggest enhanced heroin self-administration (SA) and dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcsh) of adults following adolescent ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure. However, a causal link between proenkephalin (Penk) expression and vulnerability to heroin has yet to be established.
The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD) seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA) may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD) and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD)] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD) and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD)] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays.
Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tolerance represents a dynamic mechanism that can be used to temper various regulatory processes regardless of whether they mediate excitation or inhibition. Tolerance operationally directs state-dependent attenuation of the action of endogenous and exogenous morphine. For example, tolerance ensures that immuno-inhibition induced by morphine does not compromise a requisite functional system over an extended period of time. In the nervous system, tolerance to inhibitory action insures that excitatory tone is resumed.
Previous research has shown that animal hypnosis (tonic immobility) in the rabbit may be elicited in a condition of prolonged nociceptive stimulation. These experiments show that long-lasting irritative pain, produced within 15 min of formalin injection, potentiates the duration of hypnosis. Morphine, in the absence of painful stimuli, also potentiates hypnosis duration and this effect is antagonized by naloxone. Naloxone reduces hypnosis duration, but only at high doses (15 mg/kg). In a condition of irritative pain, the potentiation of hypnosis duration is abolished by naloxone (5 mg/kg).
A series of experiments in male rabbits examined the influence of tonic immobility (animal hypnosis) on the opioid and pituitary-adrenal hormones. The aims of the experiments were to follow the temporal modifications in hormone parameters and to discriminate the effects of immobility from those of the manipulative procedure to induce the reaction. Results show that immobility elicits increases in plasma ACTH and beta-EP, but no modifications in pituitary beta-EP.
In previous studies using Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation, we showed that nitrous oxide (N(2)O) activates bulbospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats and that destruction of these neuronal pathways leads to loss of N(2)O antinociceptive action. Based on previous rat studies it has been proposed that these noradrenergic neurons are activated through opioid receptors through the release of endogenous opioid ligands in the periaqueductal gray.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP)-receptor agonists have been shown to produce anxiolytic-like effects in rodents subjected to various behavioral assays. Recently, we developed a new nonpeptide agonist of the NOP receptor, 1-[1-(1-methylcyclooctyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2-[(3R)-3-piperidinyl]-1H-benzimidazole (MCOPPB), as an anxiolytic agent.