Reflex, Startle

Publication Title: 
L'Encephale

INTRODUCTION: Emotional reactivity and sleep constitute key dimensions of bipolar disorder. Emotional reactivity referred to emotion response intensity and emotion response threshold. Higher emotion reactivity is described during both mood episodes and periods of remission in bipolar disorder. As well, sleep disturbances are described during both acute episodes and euthymic periods in bipolar disorder. Links between sleep and emotion regulation start to be studied in general population.

Author(s): 
Boudebesse, Carole
Henry, Chantal
Publication Title: 
Current Pharmaceutical Design

Clinical genetic studies propose a strong genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders with a heritability of about 30-67%. The present review will give an overview of linkage studies, association studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) yielding support for some candidate genes. Additionally, first evidence for gene-environment interactions between candidate genes of anxiety disorders and stressful life events will be reported.

Author(s): 
Domschke, Katharina
Deckert, J¸rgen
Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) compact chromatin structure and repress gene transcription. In schizophrenia, clinical studies demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors are efficacious when given in combination with atypical antipsychotics. However, the molecular mechanism that integrates a better response to antipsychotics with changes in chromatin structure remains unknown.

Author(s): 
Kurita, Mitsumasa
Holloway, Terrell
GarcÌa-Bea, Aintzane
Kozlenkov, Alexey
Friedman, Allyson K.
Moreno, JosÈ L.
Heshmati, Mitra
Golden, Sam A.
Kennedy, Pamela J.
Takahashi, Nagahide
Dietz, David M.
Mocci, Giuseppe
Gabilondo, Ane M.
Hanks, James
Umali, Adrienne
Callado, Luis F.
Gallitano, Amelia L.
Neve, Rachael L.
Shen, Li
Buxbaum, Joseph D.
Han, Ming-Hu
Nestler, Eric J.
Meana, J. Javier
Russo, Scott J.
Gonz·lez-Maeso, Javier
Publication Title: 
PloS One

We have known for decades that social support is associated with positive health outcomes. And yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The link between social support and positive health outcomes is likely to depend on the neurophysiological regulatory mechanisms underlying reward and defensive reactions. The present study examines the hypothesis that emotional social support (love) provides safety cues that activate the appetitive reward system and simultaneously inhibit defense reactions.

Author(s): 
Guerra, Pedro
S·nchez-Adam, Alicia
Anllo-Vento, Lourdes
RamÌrez, Isabel
Vila, Jaime
Publication Title: 
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP)

Hypnosis involves the manipulation of conscious attentional discrimination. The prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm assesses primary unconscious information processing. We investigated the correlation between hypnotizability and PPI of the startle reflex. Forty-eight healthy subjects were evaluated with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) and acoustic PPI. Subjects were divided into low, medium, and high hypnotizable groups.

Author(s): 
Lichtenberg, Pesach
Even-Or, Ehud
Bar, Gali
Levin, Raz
Brin, Aviv
Heresco-Levy, Uriel
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Dopaminergic mechanisms have been theorized to influence hypnotizability and sensorimotor gating. In this study, the authors investigated an association between sensorimotor gating, as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI), and hypnotizability, as assessed by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). They found an inverse correlation between the SSHS:C and PPI.

Author(s): 
Levin, Raz
Heresco-Levy, Uriel
Edelman, Shany
Shapira, Haim
Ebstein, Richard P.
Lichtenberg, Pesach
Publication Title: 
PloS One

A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis suggests that highly hypnotizable individuals (HHs) have more effective frontal attentional systems implementing control, monitoring performance, and inhibiting unwanted stimuli from conscious awareness, than low hypnotizable individuals (LHs). Recent studies, using prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex (ASR), suggest that HHs, in the waking condition, may show reduced sensory gating although they may selectively attend and disattend different stimuli.

Author(s): 
De Pascalis, Vilfredo
Russo, Emanuela
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology

Investigations of the pharmacologic profile of medicinal plants have revealed that a number of plants with purported anxiolytic activity bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. This finding is intriguing in view of the proposed involvement of CCK in the pathophysiology of fear and anxiety. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) in healthy subjects. Gotu Kola has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Author(s): 
Bradwejn, J.
Zhou, Y.
Koszycki, D.
Shlik, J.
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