Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Trust is important for the perception of many types of risk, including those relating to genetically modified (GM) food. Who the public trusts in any given circumstance, however, is not well understood. In this study of public trust regarding GM food, an exploratory factor analysis with Promax rotation reveals public classification of three common institutional types-evaluators, watchdogs, and merchants. The structure of relationships among these stakeholders can act to enable or constrain public support for this new technology.
The recent increase in the incidence of severe anaphylaxis calls for continual assessment of risk factor and dangers associated with food allergy, keeping abreast of changes in the food industry. Allergologists, regulatory bodies and the food industry are all responsible for food safety. The Allergy Vigilance Network, founded by a university research team and comprising 398 French and Belgian allergologists, has developed a three-point strategy.
Vaccines and the ability to prevent morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases have been one of the greatest public health success stories. On a global level, it is one of the few cost-effective medical measures that result in universal benefit. Despite this, there is evidence of a growing anti-vaccine movement. In turn, this has, in some cases, resulted in major disruptions in vaccine programs, with resultant needless morbidity and mortality. Of interest are the factors that seem to contribute to the current trend of anti-vaccine sentiment.
Nutritional supplementation is now a multibillion-dollar industry, and about half of all US adults take supplements. Supplement use is fueled in part by the belief that nutritional supplements can ward off chronic disease, including cancer, although several expert committees and organizations have concluded that there is little to no scientific evidence that supplements reduce cancer risk. To the contrary, there is now evidence that high doses of some supplements increase cancer risk. Despite this evidence, marketing claims by the supplement industry continue to imply anticancer benefits.
Concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals has become increasingly common, and with this trend, so has the incidence of adverse drug-supplement interactions. In the current market, consumers have no way to distinguish between safe and potentially harmful supplements.
Americans spend dollar 33 billion annually on weight loss products and services, and a large portion of this money is spent on low-carbohydrate diets. Because of their higher protein and fat content and lower fiber and carbohydrate content, concerns have been raised about the potential health consequences of low-carbohydrate diets. Published long-term data are lacking.
Convictions about established medical safety and the danger of alternative remedies and practitioners are discussed in this article. While most alternative medicines continue to be denounced as unscientific and unsafe, government reviews have concluded that chiropractic and osteopathy and (more recently) acupuncture should be registered occupations and that qualifying courses of tertiary education should be instituted in Australia. This paradoxical result follows the widespread adoption of acupuncture and spinal manipulation by established practitioners of medicine and physiotherapy.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
BACKGROUND: Problems in ascertaining cases and in determining the total number of treatments have made it difficult to establish the rate of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) after spinal manipulative therapy. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the occurrence of cerebrovascular accidents after chiropractic treatment to the cervical spine. DESIGN: Information was sought on cases of CVA in Denmark during the period 1978-1988 inclusive, through several sources and through a survey of the Danish Chiropractors' Association.
Spinal manipulation (SM) is a popular form of treatment of back and neck pain, as well as of other conditions. Uncertainty exists as to its safety. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the data of all prospective investigations into the safety of SM. Five independent literature searches were carried out to identify all such studies. Data were extracted and validated according to pre-defined criteria. Five investigations met the inclusion criteria. The most valid studies suggest that about half of all patients will experience adverse events after chiropractic SM.
The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of nurses toward the effectiveness and safety, as well as their recommendations for and personal use of complementary and alternative medical therapies. A, random sample of 1000 nurses throughout the United States were surveyed using a three-wave mailing. About half of the respondents perceived there was conclusive evidence or preponderance of evidence that five therapies were effective: biofeedback, chiropractic, meditation/relaxation, multi-vitamins, and massage therapy.