Reln mRNA and protein levels are reduced by approximately 50% in various cortical structures of post-mortem brain from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar illness with psychosis. To study mechanisms responsible for this down-regulation, we have analyzed the promoter of the human reelin gene. We show that the reelin promoter directs expression of a reporter construct in multiple human cell types: neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y), neuronal precursor cells (NT2), differentiated neurons (hNT) and hepatoma cells (HepG2).
The diversity of theories regarding children's development is commensurate with the enormity of the task of seeking ordering designs for explaining behavioral and psychic ontogeny in infants, children, and adults. The purpose of this paper is to look at these developmental theories as epigenetic stages themselves. I shall suggest that the next stage in the epigenesis of theories of development is to see variability and disorder on a continuum with order and stability, as a constant dialectic that moves development along, whether at the level of the cell or at the level of fantasy.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with life-long devastating consequences. Based on evidence for a major contribution of genetic factors, a decade of extensive efforts has been dedicated to the search of DNA sequence variations that increase the risk to SCZ. Search for genes in rare multiplex SCZ families with a large number of affected individuals and quasi-Mendelian mode of inheritance using genetic linkage methodology has been one of the favorite strategies in psychiatric genetics.
Estrogen receptors (ER alpha/ER beta) are expressed in neuronal cells and exhibit a variety of activities in the central nervous system. ER activity is regulated in a ligand-dependent manner and by co-regulatory factors. Caveolin-1 is a recently identified co-activator of ER alpha mediating the ligand-independent activation of this steroid receptor. Here the influence of ERs on caveolin expression in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells as well as in rodent brain was investigated.
Behavioral perinatology is as an interdisciplinary area of research that involves conceptualization of theoretical models and conduct of empirical studies of the dynamic time-, place-, and context-dependent interplay between biological and behavioral processes in fetal, neonatal, and infant life using an epigenetic framework of development. The biobehavioral processes of particular interest to our research group relate to the effects of maternal pre- and perinatal stress and maternal-placental-fetal stress physiology.
In this article, the concept introduced by Lyman Wynne, that the individual develops epigenetically within the family system, is discussed and validated with data from a study of the characteristics and relationships of 27 women with borderline personality disorder and their parents. Each stage of the epigenetic process is impaired in one way or another, adversely affecting subsequent stages.
Phenylketonuria is a flagship inborn error of metabolism and has been at the forefront of our growing understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of this family of disorders. In this article, the current understanding of its diagnosis, treatment, and complex molecular biology and physiology is reviewed. Recent papers exploring newer and less well-delineated areas of cofactor supplementation and genetic and epigenetic modification of the genotypic expression are presented. The excitement surrounding the continued exploration of the hyperphenylalaninemias is emphasized.
There is evidence suggesting that the primary (idiopathic) mental disorders are due to epimutations involving genes that determine the structure of the brain. Although in the past it has been suggested that the genes underlying the primary mental disorders may be unidentifiable, recent developments in neuroscience suggest otherwise. This paper outlines various epigenetic strategies that may help identify the genes underlying these disorders.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
BACKGROUND: Genotype x environment interaction (G x E) arises when genes influence sensitivity to the environment. G x E is easily recognized in experimental organisms that permit randomization of genotypes over fixed environmental treatments. Genotype-environment correlation (rGE) arises when genetic effects create or evoke exposure to environmental differences.
Genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have often produced conflicting results, which might partly result from the involvement of epigenetic modifications. We intended to explore the possible implication of DNA methylation and human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we identified two HERV loci that are expected to retain the transcriptional activity in the brain. One was located on chromosome 1q21-q22 and the other on 22q12.