Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
A study to evaluate an antimutagenic potential of water, chloroform and acetone extracts of Triphala has been made in an Ames histidine reversion assay using TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium against the direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and sodium azide, and the indirect-acting promutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2AF), in the presence of phenobarbitone-induced rat hepatic S9. A combination drug 'Triphala' - a composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, T.
The bioassay-directed isolation of Terminalia chebula fruits afforded four human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitors, gallic acid ( 1) and three galloyl glucoses ( 2 - 4). In addition, four flavonol glycoside gallates ( 5 - 8) from Euphorbia pekinensis containing the galloyl moiety also showed the inhibitory activity at a level comparable to those of 2 - 4.
Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named 'Triphala' (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced with Fe(2+)/ascorbate were food to be 85.5, 27, 74 and 69 micro g/ml, respectively.
A 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects on growth in several malignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast cancer cell line, a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic, immortalized human prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell death (flow cytometry and Hoechst DNA staining).
The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. T. chebula treated wounds healed much faster as indicated by improved rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization. Biochemical studies revealed a significant increase in total protein, DNA and collagen contents in the granulation tissues of treated wounds. The levels of hexosamine and uronic acid in these tissues, also increased upto day 8 post-wounding.
Zhong Yao Cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
The fatty oils in Terminulia chebula were extracted by supercritical-CO2 fluid extraetion, and their fatty acids and its relative contents were determined by GC-MS. 12 fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid of them are main constituents. Compared with petroleum ether extraction method, the extraction rate from SFE-CO2 is higher and extraction time shorter.
India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities.
Statistically based experimental designs were applied to the optimization of cultural conditions for tannase production, an enzyme of great importance, from Penicillium variable. First, D-optimal design was used to evaluate the effects of variables, including concentrations of substrate (chebulic myrobalan, fruits of the tree Terminalia chebula ), pH, inoculum density, agitation and incubation period, on tannase production. The optimum value of pH and inoculum density thus obtained was 5.0 and 5 x 10(7) spores/50 ml respectively.
Free radicals react with biological molecules and destroy the structure of cells, which eventually causes free-radical induced disease such as cancer, renal failure, aging, etc. In this study, 6 extracts and 4 pure compounds of Terminalia chebula RETZ. were investigated for anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide radical formation and free radical scavenging activities. The superoxide radical scavenging of the 4 pure compounds was further evaluated using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. The results showed that all tested extracts and pure compounds of T.
Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering.