Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Influenza is an infectious virus affecting both humans and animals. In humans, symptoms present as fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, muscle and joint pain, and malaise. The epidemiological profile of influenza is influenced by multiple factors, including transmissibility of the virus and the susceptibility of the population. Annually, influenza is estimated to infect 5% to 10% of adults, with higher rates in winter seasons in countries with seasonal variation.

Grande, Antonio Jose
Reid, Hamish
Thomas, Emma E.
Nunan, David
Foster, Charles
Publication Title: 
Revue Medicale Suisse

The news in addiction medicine for 2011 include new knowledges coming from the neurosciences, but also new clinical concepts, as the role of hospital addiction units in an integrated network of care. The issue of cocaine vaccination is discussed from an ethical point of view. Finally, the integration of mindfulness techniques is introduced as a useful approach in the treatment of the addictions.

Besson, J.
Grivel, J.
Tomei, A.
Falcheri, J.-P.
Waelchli, M.
Simon, O.
Rossier, V.
Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Naturally occurring T regulatory cells targeting epitopes derived from various heat shock proteins escape thymic negative selection and can be activated by vaccination with heat shock proteins; hence, vaccination with such proteins has exerted favorable effects on rodent models of autoimmune disorders.

McCarty, Mark F.
Al-Harbi, Saleh A.
Publication Title: 
Preventive Medicine

In 2008, Alberta Roman Catholic Bishops' discouraged in-school HPV vaccination because: "a school-based approach to vaccination sends a message that early sexual intercourse is allowed, as long as one uses 'protection.'" The publicly funded Calgary Catholic School District Board voted against in-school HPV vaccine administration. In 2009, vaccine uptake was 70% in Calgary public schools and 18.9% in Calgary Catholic schools.

Guichon, Juliet R.
Mitchell, Ian
Buffler, Patricia
Caplan, Art
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology: Official Publication of the International Retrovirology Association

Efficacy trials of candidate HIV-1 vaccines require study populations at high risk of infection who adhere to study protocols and who are willing to participate. Data from HIV-1 antibody-negative men (n = 698) enrolled in Project ACHIEVE in New York City were analyzed to assess willingness to participate in efficacy trials, factors influencing willingness, and the effect on willingness of the June 1994 media events about the decision not to proceed with phase III trials and about breakthrough infections during phase I and II vaccine trials.

Koblin, B. A.
Avrett, S.
Taylor, P. E.
Stevens, C. E.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners

Immunisation has proved a highly effective public health policy. However, it has come under public suspicion at times, with large falls in pertussis immunizations in the 1980s and smaller falls in measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake recently. Immunisation scares have also occurred in other countries. This discussion paper explores the concepts of herd immunity, altruism, and informed consent. Historical, quantitative, and qualitative research on the sociology of immunisation is reviewed.

Vernon, J. Gervase
Publication Title: 

The fact that certain vaccines are grown in cell strains derived decades ago from an aborted fetus is a concern for some. To understand such concerns, a standardized search identified internet sites discussing vaccines and abortion. Ethical concerns raised include autonomy, conscience, coherence, and immoral material complicity. Two strategies to analyse moral complicity show that vaccination is ethical: the abortions were past events separated in time, agency, and purpose from vaccine production. Rubella disease during pregnancy results in many miscarriages and malformations.

Zimmerman, Richard Kent
Publication Title: 
Human Vaccines

OBJECTIVES: To inform strategies for vaccinating elderly veterans, the objectives were to determine the proportion of veterans > or =65 years old vaccinated against influenza during the 2004-05 vaccine-shortage, the place they received vaccine, the reasons why they were/were not vaccinated and their attitudes to the shortage. RESULTS: Among 682 respondents, 87% were vaccinated during 2004-05. More participants received vaccine at the Veterans' Administration hospital than previously (67% vs. 57%, p < 0.0001).

Benin, Andrea L.
Learsy-Cahill, Dawn
Das, Rita
Kancir, Sue
Welch, Barbara
Martinello, Richard A.
Publication Title: 
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French institute for study of geriatric infection risk (ORIG) has run a multiphase multicenter study (VESTA) to develop and implement active programs promoting healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination. The present article reports results after implementation of the first active program. METHOD: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted from December 1 to December 15, 2005, and a total of 43 geriatric wards (3646 HCWs) were randomly assigned to two clusters.

Rothan-Tondeur, Monique
Filali-Zegzouti, YounËs
Belmin, JoÎl
Lejeune, Benoist
Golmard, Jean-Louis
de WaziËres, BenoÓt
Carrat, Fabrice
Piette, FranÁois
Mouala, Christian
Gavazzi, GaÎtan
ORIG association
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

Game theory is based on the assumption that individuals act according to self-interest and make decisions that maximize their personal payoffs. To test this fundamental assumption, we conducted a survey study in the context of influenza vaccination decisions. Contrary to the assumption of self-interest, we found that altruism plays an important role in vaccination decisions. Nevertheless, altruistic motivation has not yet been considered in epidemiological models, in predictions of vaccination decisions or in the design of vaccination policies.

Shim, Eunha
Chapman, Gretchen B.
Townsend, Jeffrey P.
Galvani, Alison P.


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