Oxidative stress is a principal pathway for the dysfunction and ultimate destruction of cells in the neuronal and vascular systems for several disease entities, not promoting the ravages of oxidative stress to any less of a degree than diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is increasing in incidence as a result of changes in human behavior that relate to diet and daily exercise and is predicted to affect almost 400 million individuals worldwide in another two decades.
Osteoblast lineage-specific differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is a well regulated but poorly understood process. Both bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt signaling are implicated in regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here we analyzed the expression profiles of mesenchymal stem cells stimulated with Wnt3A and osteogenic BMPs, and we identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a potential target of Wnt and BMP signaling.
As one of the most common malignancies, colon cancer is initiated by abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Although the treatment options have increased for some patients, overall progress has been modest. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatments. We have found that bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid tetrandrine (TET) exhibits anticancer activity. TET is used as a calcium channel blocker to treat hypertensive and arrhythmic conditions in Chinese medicine. Here, we investigate the molecular basis underlying TET's anticancer activity.
Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the United States. Approximately 90% of colon cancer deaths arise from the metastasis of primary tumors. Aberrant expression of Wnt5a, one of the WNT signaling factors, has been reported during colon cancer development and progression. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of Wnt5a were decreased in the highly metastatic human colon cancer cell line SW620 compared with the non-metastatic human colon cancer cell SW480.
Phytochemicals are a rich source of chemoprevention agents but their effects on modulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway have remained largely uninvestigated. Aberrantly activated Wnt signaling can result in the abnormal stabilization of β-catenin, a key causative step in a broad spectrum of cancers. Here we report the modulation of lithium chloride-activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by phytochemicals that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or chemopreventive properties.
The adipocytes are the predominant cell types that constitute the bulk of the thymic microenvironment by the fifth decade of life in healthy humans. An age-related increase in thymic adiposity is associated with reduced thymopoiesis and compromised immune surveillance in the elderly. However, the mechanisms regulating the generation of intrathymic adipocytes during aging remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that the CD45- thymic stromal cells (TSCs) are amenable to adipogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1) whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2) whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction.